The difference between Art Nouveau and Art Deco explained!
The difference between Art Deco and Art Nouveau is often confusing. Whereas most people are vaguely familiar with the historical and stylistic developments of Art Nouveau and Art Deco in paintings and sculptures, 'design movements' in general receive much less attention. In this article we describe the development and the main differences between Art Deco and Art Nouveau.
The main difference between Art deco en Art Nouveau
To answer the question in the title of this article directly: as a rule of thumb, Art Nouveau is the more organic style whilst Art Deco tends to be more polished. However, they were established in different époques with different motives. See also the examples below.
Art Nouveau vase, by Daum Frères, circa 1900
Emergence of 'applied arts'
For many centuries, art academies dominated the general concept of art all over Western Europe. Hierarchically speaking, painting and sculpture were therefore regarded as the “highest” forms of art, whereas design and the decorative arts were seen as “lower” forms, causing a widespread gap between the fine and applied arts.
The "Coca-Cola bottle" a nice example of the 'applied' Art Deco style, combining beauty and functionality in an everyday design
Towards the end of the nineteenth century, after yet another neo-classical uprising, the desire to abandon these strict historical styles and hierarchies grew larger. At the same time, the industrial revolution had caused production to become highly mechanized. This, in turn, made artists seek out a revival of good craftsmanship.
Characteristics of Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau became the label that was given to the modernist movement that erupted from this desire. It’s difficult to pinpoint the exact moment or location of its establishment, because there were several similar movements taking place all over Europe at the time. But between 1890 and 1914, Art Nouveau prevailed.
The Parisian art gallery La Maison de l‘Art Nouveau, which was owned by the avant-garde art collector Siegfried Bing (1838-1905), was one of the first galleries to display and publicize about a large collection of works that were created during this movement. Hence why its name is often credited to this source.
Art Nouveau pendant/ brooch 1890, available at Adin Fine Antique Jewellery
Art Nouveau artists drew their inspiration from organic and geometric forms, creating elegant and flowing designs with a distinct emphasis on contours, filled in with muted tones. The hype surrounding Japanese prints at that time, especially its floral and curved patterns, formed another very important influence.
Art Nouveau designs were applied to a wide range of disciplines, from graphic arts to furniture, interior decoration, architecture and the fine arts, exemplified at its best by Gustav Klimt’s work.
Effect of the Paris Exposition Universelle of 1900
The Paris Exposition Universelle of 1900 gave Art Nouveau a major boost. It was held to celebrate the achievements of the past century and to accelerate development into the next and displayed many technological innovations and the latest artworks. The fair visited by nearly 50 millions people was a real record!
Overview of "The Paris Exposition Universelle in 1900"which boosted Art Nouveau
In Germany, the style was popularised and promoted by a magazine called Jugend illustrierte Wochenschrift für Kunst und Leben, which is the reason why in Germany (and most Nordic countries) this style is also known as "Jugendstil".
In Austria, Art Nouveau was first popularised by artists of the Viennese Secession movement, which led to the name Sezessionstil.
Even in English speaking countries, different terms were used to describe this decorative style; in the United States it was referred to as the 'Tiffany Style' and in the United Kingdom people also spoke of the Glasgow Style.
Despite the large diversity across different countries and areas of design, the common denominator of Art Nouveau was a determination to push beyond the historical boundaries.
Detail of the 'Art Nouveau style" façade of the Hotel Céramic, Paris
Art Nouveau artists wanted to create a new reality, a modern world with its own vocabulary. The style is characterised by the raw force of nature, showing dynamic, whiplash curves and motifs. Nowadays, Art Nouveau is considered to have paved the way for the modernistic art and design styles of the 20th century. A great number of its monuments are also listed as UNESCO World Heritage, including the historic centre of Riga and Hotel Tassel in Belgium.
Emergence of Art Deco
Just before the First World War, Art Nouveau had already started to fade out, making way for a more modernistic aesthetic: Art Deco.
Decorative artists experienced a rise in status following the turn of the century; similarly, a rise in wealth and social as well as technological progress gave birth to the widespread luxury industry. This golden combination solidified the Art Deco movement.
Art Deco sculpure 'Nude Hoop Dancer' by Andre Marcel Bouraine (Briand), c.a. 1925, by gallery 'Het Ware Huis'
Art Deco truly embraced the influence of the industrial revolution. Art Deco designs were therefore more symmetrical and streamlined, attempting to make machine-made objects more aesthetically appealing to everybody.
The Chrysler Building designed by William of Alen’s for example can be seen as an real Art Deco icon. The use of curved forms and bold colours are very typical.
Typical example of Art Deco, 1930, The Chrysler Building, New York
Art Deco was adopted by designers and architects around the globe and has left behind an impressive legacy in a great number of cities. Art Deco was also highly influenced by the contemporary artists of that period, especially by the abstract shapes and forms of the Cubists, notably Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque.
Also glass as an medium enjoyed an important status throughout the Art Deco era, it became a staple of the luxury industry. René Lalique's work is especially symbolic of this period.
René Lalique, Art Deco style vase 'Archers', 1921 available through Lennart Booij Fine Art and Rare Items
Contrary to Art Nouveau, the definition of the Art Deco movement derived from a single source: the Exposition Internationales des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes that took place in 1925. In France, Art Deco was referred to as Style Moderne. Art Deco remained the decorative art style during the 20’s and 30’s and was in a sense more eclectic, as it encompassed elements from different styles.
Art Deco sculpture 'Dancer with Thyrsus' by Pierre le Faguays, 1925
Modern art replaces Art Deco
Unfortunately, Europe was hit by the Great Depression during the 1930's. The average wealth plummeted, leaving many Art Deco enthousiasts to no longer be able to afford its rich materials, luxury items and furniture. In terms of architecture, Art Deco also had a difficult time competing with modern architecture, as epitomised by the work of Le Corbusier and the German Bauhaus movement.
Le Corbusier was a brilliant spokesperson for modern architecture, he considered a house to be no more than "a machine to live in". He also famously declared the decorative arts to be a dying medium.
Le Corbusier's ideas were eventually adopted by architecture schools and the aesthetics of Art Deco were slowly abandoned. After World War II the style had gone completely out of fashion, with certain areas of industrial design remaining as the only exception.
Summary main difference Art Deco and Art Nouveau
Hopefully the difference between Art Nouveau and Art Deco has now become clear to you. Aside from the aspect of timing, what sets these two design movements apart largely comes down to aesthetics. The organic and flowing forms that define Art Nouveau were a clear response to artist's desire to break free from rigid classical and hierarchical structures, whereas the bolder and streamlined designs of Art Deco reflect the glamorization of the industrial revolution.